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The ETAB model performance has been tested against the experimental data of Hiroyasu and Kadota (1974) and corresponding computations performed with the WB model of Reitz (1987). The results are in good agreement, as is illustrated with the spray tip penetration (figure 4) and the radial expansion of the spray (figure5). The sprays are represented as frontal views in figure 6 for the various computation cases at the injection time of tinj=1.2 ms. The top row is an enlargement and illustrates the fragmented liquid core and the droplet breakup-cascade.
Figure 4: Comparisons of the spray tip penetration versus time between the ETAB computations of cases 1-3, the results of Reitz and the experiments of Hiroyasu and Kadota. The top three curves correspond to case 1, the middle three to case 2 and the bottom three to case 3. 
Figure 5: Comparisons of spray angles between the ETAB model and the experiments of Hiroyasu and Kadota. 
Figure 6: Jet breakup lengths and drop breakup-cascade for the diesel fuel sprays computed with the ETAB model for case A and cases 1-3 at tinj=1.2 ms. The top row is an enlargement and shows the simulation of the liquid core. (The scale gives the droplet radii for cases 1-3, and the diameters for case A in cm). 

Franz X. Tanner